No other animal on Earth has had the impact on human civilization than has the horse. Bar none. Here we celebrate the evolution, history, majesty, diversity, and freedom of the world’s wild equines. Use the tabs above to navigate the pages of Wild Horse Nation.
The Wild Horse: At a Glance
However, other subspecies of Equus ferus may have existed and could have been the stock from which domesticated horses are descended. Since the extinction of the tarpan, attempts have been made to reconstruct its phenotype, resulting in horse breeds such as the Konik and Heck horse, but the genetic makeup and foundation bloodstock of those breeds is substantially derived from domesticated horses, so these breeds possess domesticated traits.
The mustang is a free-roaming horse of the American west that first descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish. The original mustangs were Colonial Spanish horses, but many other breeds and types of horses contributed to the modern mustang, resulting in varying phenotypes. In the 21st century, mustang herds vary in the degree to which they can be traced to original Iberian horses. Some contain a greater genetic mixture of ranch stock and more recent breed releases, while others are relatively unchanged from the original Iberian stock, most strongly represented in the most isolated populations.
Controversy surrounds the sharing of land and resources by free-ranging mustangs with the livestock of the ranching industry, and also with the methods with which the federal government manages the wild population numbers. A policy of rounding up excess population and offering these horses for adoption to private owners has been inadequate to address questions of population control, and many horses now live in temporary holding areas, kept in captivity, but not adopted to permanent homes.
Advocates for mustangs also express concerns that the animals may be sold for horse meat. Additional debate centers on the question of whether mustangs — and horses in general — are a native species or an introduced invasive species. Here, on the pages of Wild Horse Nation, we will present a thorough and well-documented case for America’s wild horses, but we also celebrate the world’s other equines.
The animal that we know today as the horse appeared first on the North American continent about 55 million years ago with its four-toed ancestor, Eohippus, meaning “dawn horse.” This small animal was about the size of a fox and made its home in swamplands, feeding off plant life.
Eohippus slowly evolved into Mesohippus, the size of an average collie. Mesohippus had three toes and eventually became an inhabitant of the prairie. Its shape changed as its habitat changed: It grew taller, its teeth and middle toe grew longer and eventually became a hoof. The evolution continued until Equus caballus — the horse as we know it today — was formed.
The horse was probably first domesticated about 4,000 to 5,000 years ago in the region of the Black Sea of Asia. Once man learned to tame them, horses served a variety of purposes. For centuries man traveled no faster than a horse could run. Horses carried the conquering armies of entire civilizations across the old world. (The entire Mongol Empire of Ghengis and Kubla Khan was made possible only by the horse.) In Europe the horse was soon hitched to the plow to expand society’s agricultural capabilities.
As the horse evolved, it first appeared on the grasslands of the North American continent. But for reasons that scientists still don’t understand, horses began wandering off North America about 10 million years ago. They began their journey across the Bering Straits (west of Alaska) into Asia, and continued across the Iranian Plateau of the Middle East and as far as Europe and northern Africa. By about 10 thousand years ago, no more horses remained on the North American continent.
The reintroduction of the horses into the Americas began in 1519 when Cortez came from Spain. As more and more settlers from Spain and other European countries came, they brought horses with them and returned these animals to their native land after a 10,000-year journey around the world.
The word mustang comes from the Spanish word, mustengo, which means, “ownerless beast.” The American mustangs originally came from the Spanish stock of horses who were brought to the Americas beginning in the 16th Century. Over time, other kinds of horses banded with wild Spanish horses, including quarter horses, draught horses, and others.
Today, when most people use the word “mustangs,” they are probably referring to all wild horses in North America. However, there are specific kinds of mustangs, and they have their own unique breeds.
At Return to Freedom, we have a number of horses who have been proven to be direct descendants of the Spanish stock that came to this country over 400 years ago.
Horses are herd animals. That means that they live as a group, helping one another survive the elements and threats that they encounter.
Here at Return to Freedom, we allow wild horses to live as they would if they were running free. Through the years, we have watched our horses carefully, and offer insights into how wild horses behave.
Yes! The picture of horses running free across open lands is one of our country’s most romantic images. And wild horses still roam in America today.
Horses are able to live in the wild because that is how nature intended them to live. Many people think that horses were bred in captivity, much like dogs and cats. But, in fact, horses breed and exist naturally as wild animals, like wolves and tigers do.
Wild horses in North America live on islands off the Atlantic coast as well as in some U.S. states. Small populations of horses live on Sable Island (off the coast of Nova Scotia, Canada), Assateague Island (off the coast of Maryland and Virginia), Shakleford Island (off the coast of North Carolina), and Cumberland Islands (off the coast of Georgia).
Wild horses also roam on 11 western states that include Nevada, Wyoming, Utah, Oregon, California, Colorado, Idaho, Arizona, Montana, North Dakota, and New Mexico.
For the most part, wild horses in the United States live on public lands. Those are lands that are owned by U.S. citizens and paid for by Americans’ tax dollars. Most public lands are managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Nobody really knows for sure. This is because horses are not counted in all the areas where they roam.
But, the BLM does publish estimates of the number of wild horses and burros that roam on public lands that it manages. As of January 2017, the BLM estimated that there are 67,030 wild horses and burros on lands that they manage. It is likely that there are actually many fewer horses and burros left on 34 million acres of public land managed by the BLM.
Velma Johnston, better known as Wild Horse Annie, with the help of children all across the country was instrumental in establishing the first laws to protect wild horses in America. We invite you to read more.
There are. In 1971, Congress passed the Wild Free Roaming Horse and Burro Act. This law was the first of its kind to protect wild horses and burros. The law stated that “wild horses and burros are living symbols of the historic and pioneer spirit of the West,” and that they “enrich the lives of the American people.”
In that year, the American government set aside 80 million acres as wild horse territory where herds could run free. Unfortunately, over the years, the amount of land set aside for wild horses has been reduced, so that today less than 40 million acres remain. And many of those acres do not offer the kinds of grazing lands that horses need.
Wild horses who live on public lands must share the resources of grazing lands and water with farmers’ livestock, including cattle and sheep, as well as other wild animals. As increasing numbers of animals compete for the limited resources of America’ public lands, there are few people to speak up for the wild horses to assure that their interests — and their homes — are protected.
As more and more wild horses are removed from public lands, it is very important that these horses find suitable homes and are preserved and protected. Although there are adoption programs for wild horses, there are no safeguards that insure that people who adopt wild horses will take care of them properly. In fact, some people even adopt horses and then sell them to slaughter houses.
At Return to Freedom, we feel that wild horses need to be protected. And we feel it is just as important that bonded herds be able to stay together when they are moved off public lands.
Imagine how you would feel if you were separated from your family and others you love. Well, the same is true for wild horses. For this reason, when we take wild horses from public lands, we make sure that entire herds are relocated as a group. When we take one horse — we take the entire family. We may be the only sanctuary in the country that does this.
Wild Horse Annie proved how much people could do to help wild horses. There are also things you can do that would really help Return to Freedom help wild horses.
Currently, we have more than 400 horses at our Sanctuary. And we have to make sure they are all fed and cared for. Also, in order to save even more horses, we need more land.
Please consider how you, your friends or family, your class or youth group, your coworkers and clergy, etc., can help us save wild horses and burros. Your help could mean so much!